Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM, from Engl. Universal Transverse Mercator i>)   is a system map projection in which the Earth’s surface 60 is divided into elongated zones in the meridional direction width of 6 degrees. Each of these areas has its own central meridian and is projected separately in Transverse Mercator  
Features [edit. | edit code]
Unlike projection Gauss-Kruger, UTM used in the scaling factor equal to 0.9996. The result is that in this projection scale factor of the unit is not in the line of the central meridian, but at some distance (about 180 km) on both sides of it. Due to this maximum distortion within shestigradusnoy zone does not exceed 0.1%. 
Another difference is the numbering zones. Here the central meridian of the first zone has a longitude of 177 °. . Etc. Thus, for example, the 7th zone projection Gauss-Kruger corresponds 37th zone UTM
is distinguished and the order of recording coordinates. In Gauss-Kruger abscissa axis is directed to the north, and in UTM x-axis is directed to the east, and the y-axis – to the north. In order to avoid negative coordinate values to the abscissa value added 500,000 m, and the value of the ordinate in the southern hemisphere – 10000000 m
History [edit |. edit code]
There is evidence that since the 1942-1943 system similar to the UTM, used by the German Wehrmacht. On aerial photographs of the time printed labels UTMREF and alphanumeric designation of zones. 
In the modern form of UTM system was developed by engineers of the US Army in the 1940s.  For the continental United States as a reference ellipsoid used ellipsoid 1866. Clark used ellipsoid Hayford For the rest of the earth (also known as international i> ellipsoid). Currently, the system is based on the ellipsoid WGS84
Alternatives [edit. | edit code]
To display the polar areas instead of UTM using UPS system (Eng. Universal Polar Stereographic coordinate system), based on the polar stereographic projection.
In Russia and many other countries for geodetic and mapping work used the projection Gauss -. Kruger, also based on the transverse Mercator
In the UK, in addition to the UTM, also used the projection of Ordnance Survey National Grid i>, also based on the transverse Mercator .